BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE HISTORY OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 1900-2012
8th Edition

Compiled by
Robert V. Williams

Robert V. Williams is Distinguished Professor, Emeritus, School of Library and Information Science,
University of South Carolina.

Introduction and Purpose:
This bibliography attempts comprehensive coverage of the historical writings on the field of information science, with emphasis on North America. It includes all items in and updates the earlier two versions authored by Williams, Whitmire, and Bradley and published in the April, 1997 issue of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science (Vol. 48, No. 4) and in T.B. Hahn and M. Buckland, eds., Historical Studies in Information Science (published for the American Society for Information Science by Info Today, 1998). Those two versions were products of a project sponsored by the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) Special Interest Group (SIG) Projects Fund, with additional support by the Chemical Heritage Foundation and the Eugene Garfield Foundation. This edition has the additional support of the University of South Carolina School of Library and Information Science.

     Like the earlier versions, this bibliography also uses a broad definition of information science but does not attempt to cover two closely related areas, library science and computer science, both of which have existing comprehensive historical bibliographies (see below for titles). However, making distinctions between the history of information science and the history of these two closely allied fields has not always been easily accomplished. When doubt arose, I generally chose to include the item. I encountered similar problems when attempting to make decisions about items that addressed historical aspects of the literature of various disciplines (such as chemistry or biology) but also included significant discussion of the history of information retrieval in those fields. Again, when in doubt the item was included. I recognize, however, that coverage of the historical work on information handling in the various disciplines is one of the weaknesses of this compilation. I invite the help of readers in improving this coverage.

     I have also taken a fairly broad view of what constitutes an “historical” work. Because the history of information science is still in an early development phase I think this approach is justified. Thus, I have included not only the traditional historical monographs, encyclopedia contributions, and journal articles but also such items as longer obituary notices (the “In Memoriam” type articles), personal retrospective descriptions of programs and inventions, reminiscences, oral histories, and items whose main purpose was anticipating the future by reviewing the past.  While many of these only minimally qualify as history, I feel that they do have a place in a comprehensive bibliography of the field. Finally, while this edition emphasizes the writings of North American writers, attention has also been given to the history of information science and technology throughout the world. (Previous editions of this bibliography listed the international works separately.) However, I also recognize that worldwide coverage is weak in this version. I am (very slowly) working towards improving this situation and I invite my colleagues to join me in making improvements so that a genuinely comprehensive international bibliography of the history of information science and technology can be produced in the near future. (For additional bibliographies and Internet links on the history of information science outside North America, consult the following Web sites:

Germany:  http://www.tu-harburg.de/b/hapke/infohist.htm#germany

France:  http://gabriel.gallezot.free.fr/Solaris/d04/4fayet_0intro.html

The bibliography is divided into three sections: books (including encyclopedia articles and articles in edited compilations), journal articles, and unpublished materials. This bibliography follows the APA style guidelines for bibliographies. I encourage readers to help make this bibliography more complete and up-to-date by sending citations to any items they think should be included. Please forward any information to: Robert V. Williams, Univ. of South Carolina at: bobwill@sc.edu .  Last updated: October, 2010.

BOOKS AND EDITED WORKS

Abbate, J. (1999). Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Adkinson, B. W. (1976). NSF-Science Information. In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 19, pp. 154-177). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Adkinson, B. W. (1978). Two centuries of federal information. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.

Agar, J. (2003). A revolutionary history of the computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Univ. Press.

Agar, J., Green, S. & Harvey, P. (2003). Cotton to computers: from industrial to information revolutions. In S. Woolgar, (Ed.), Virtual society? Get Real! Technology, cyberbole, reality (pp. 264-284). Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.

Agarwal, N.K. (2012). Making sense of sense-making: tracing the history and development of Dervin’s sensemaking methodology. In T. Carbo and T.B. Hahn, (Eds.) (2012). International Perspectives on the History of Information Science and Technology… (pp. 61-73). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., for the American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Agrawal, S. (1989). Development of Documentation in India: Social Science Information. New Delhi, India: Concept Pub. Co.

Aines, A. A. (1971). Committee on Scientific and Technical Information (COSATI). In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 5, pp. 408-421). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Allen, W.C. & Dellzell, R.F. (1992). Ideals and standards: the history of the University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1893-1993. Urbana-Champaign, IL: The School.

Altman, E. (1993). National Science Foundation‘s support of information research. In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 52, Suppl. 15, pp. 273-291). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Anderson, D. (1984). Universal bibliographic control. In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 37, Suppl. 2, pp. 366-401). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Anderson, D. J. (1988). The impact of one leader. In A. Woodsworth & B. von Wahlde (Eds.), Leadership for research libraries: A festschrift for Robert M. Hayes (pp. 207-218). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Arnett, E. M., & Pugh, M. J. (1970). Chemical information centers. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 4, pp. 500-510). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Armstrong, A. (2000). Technique and technology: Script, print and poetics in France, 1470-1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arntz, H. (1974). International Federation for Documentation (FID). In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 12, pp.377-402). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Artandi, S. (1971). Coordinate indexing. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 5, pp. 679-682). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Aspray, W. (Ed.). (1990). Computing before computers. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Aspray, W. (Ed.). (2004). Chasing Moore’s Law: Information Technology Policy in the United States. Sci Tech Publishing, 208p.

Aspray, W. (2004). The supply of information technology workers, higher education, and computing research: a history of policy and practice in the United States. In: Coopey, R. (Ed.) Information technology policy: an international history. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Aspray, W. & Ceruzzi, P. (Eds.) (2008). The Internet and American Business. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Austin, C. J. (1968). MEDLARS: 1963-1967. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

Austrian, G. D. (1984). Herman Hollerith: Forgotten giant of information processing. NY: Columbia University

Avram, H. D. (1975). Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) program. In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 16, pp. 380-413). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Avram, H. D. (1975). MARC, its history and implications. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Avram, H. D. (1988). Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC). In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 43, Suppl. 8, pp. 136-160). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Babbage (Charles) Institute. (2001). Building a Future for Software History: Master Bibliography. Web database: http://www.cbi.umn.edu/shp/bibliography.html

Bagg, T. C. (1963). The Rapid Selector as currently used for information search and replica copy retrieval. In H. P. Luhn (Ed.), Proceedings of the American Documentation Institute. Part 2. 26th annual meeting (pp. 227-228). Washington, DC: American Documentation Institute.

Baigrie, B. S. (Ed.) (1996). Picturing knowledge: Historical and philosophical problems concerning the use of art in science. (Toronto Studies in Philosophy.) Toronto & Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

Baker, D. (1971). Chemical Abstracts Service. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 4, pp. 479-499). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Baker, D. (1983). Chemical Abstracts Service. In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 36, Suppl. 1, pp. 167-182). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Baker, D. B. (1999). World’s first electronically (computer) published scientific journal [Pioneers’ reminiscences]. In M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, & R. V. Williams (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (p. 253). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Balsamo, L. (1990). Bibliography: History of a tradition. Translated from the Italian by W. A. Pettas. Berkeley, CA: Bernard M. Rosenthal.

Battelle, J. (2006). The search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. NY: Portfolio Trade.

Batty, C. D. (1971). Chain indexing. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science. (Vol. 4, pp. 423-434). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Batty, C.D. (2005). Intelligence work and information science. In: Williams, R.V. & Lipetz, B.A. (Eds.) Covert and Overt: Recollecting and Connecting Intelligence Service and Information Science (pp. 25-32). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. and Scarecrow Press for the American Society for Information Science. (ASIST Monograph Series)

Battz, S. (2004). Medical science and medical informatics: the Visible Human Project, 1986-2000. In W. B. Rayward, & M. E. Bowden (Eds.). (2004). Conference on the history and heritage of scientific and technological information systems: proceedings of the 2002 conference (pp. 110-117). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society of Information Science and Technology and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. http://www.chemheritage.org/events/asist2002/proceedings.html

Bauer, M. (Ed.) (1995). Resistance to new technology: Nuclear power, information technology and biotechnology.  Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, for The Science Museum.

Baum, C. (1981). The systems builders: The story of SDC.  Santa Monica, CA: System Development Corporation.

Bawden, D. (2006). The history of information and documentation. Journal of Documentation, 62(2), 169-170.

Bayley, C.A. (1996). Empire and information: Intelligence gathering and social communication in India, 1780-1870. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Becker, J. (1975). A brief history of online bibliographic systems. In J. Sherrod (Ed.), Information systems and networks (pp. 3-13). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Bednarek, A. R. (1970). Boolean algebras. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 3, pp. 88-98). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Bednarek, A. R. (1970). George Boole. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 3, pp. 88). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Behrends, E. (1995). Technisch-wissenschaftliche Dokumentation in Deutschland von 1900 bis 1945: unter besonderer Beruksichtigung des Verhaltnisses von Bibliothek und Dokumentation [Technical and scientific documentation in Germany from 1900 to 1945: with special reference to the relationship between library and documentation]. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Belzer, J. (1969). Charles Babbage. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 2, pp. 240-242). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Benaud, C.L., & Bordeianu, S. (1995). OCLC‘s FirstSearch Catalog. In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 55, Suppl. 18, pp. 238-255). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Beniger, J. R. (1986). The control revolution: Technological and economic origins of the information society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bennertz, R.K. (1971). Development of the Defense Documentation Center Remote On-Line Retrieval System: Past, Present and Future. Alexandria, VA: Defense Documentation Center. (DDC-TR-71-2; AD 720-900; N71—27868; ED 050-799).

Bennett, G. E. (1988). Librarians in search of science and identity: The elusive profession. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Bennett, T. (1995). The birth of the museum: history, theory, politics. London: Routledge.

Bensman, S.J. (2007). Garfield and the Impact Factor. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 41, 93-155.

Bensman, S.J. & Kraft, D.H. (2007). Tibor Braun, the Journal Scientometrics, and the International Development of a New Discipline. In The Multidimensional World of Tibor Braun: A Multidisciplinary Encomium for His 75th Birthday, p. 71-73. W. Glänzel, A. Schubert, and B. Schlemmer (Eds.). Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, 2007. Available at: http://www.issisociety.info/tiborbraun75/tiborbraun75.pdf

Beretta, M. (1995). Bibliotheca Lavoisieriana: The catalogue of the library of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. Florence: Leo S. Olschki.

Berkhofer, R. E. Jr. (1995). Beyond the great story: History as text and discourse. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press.

Berner, R.C. (1983). Archival theory and practice in the United States: a historical analysis. Seattle, WA: Univ. of Washington Press.

Berners-Lee, & Fischett, M. (1999) Weaving the Web: the original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor. San Francisco: Harper.

Bernier, C. H. (1968). Alphabetic indexes. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 1, pp. 169-201). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Bernier, C. L. (1977). Permuted indexes. In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 22, pp. 35-65). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Bernstein, J. (1982). Science observed: Essays out of my mind. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Berry, M.E. (2007). Japan in print: information and nation in the early modern period. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

Bieier, C. (2001). Tradition in transition: a history of the School of the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Birrien, J.-Y. (1992). Histoire de l’informatique. 2nd ed. Paris: Presses Univ. de France.

Biological Abstracts and the literature of biology: A symposium in celebration of the founding of Biological Abstracts…1952. (1956). Philadelphia: Biological Abstracts.

Bissell, Thomas A. (1969). The engineering index story (1884-1969). New York: Engineering Index.

Bjorkborn, C. (1978). “The History of the Word Documentation within the FID.” In P. R. Frank (Ed.), (1978). Von der systematischen Bibliographie zur Dokumentation [From systematic bibliography to documentation] (pp. 103-108). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. (Original work published 1959.)

Black, A. (2004a). Technical libraries in British industrial and commercial enterprises before 1950. In W. B. Rayward, & M. E. Bowden (Eds.). (2004). Conference on the history and heritage of scientific and technological information systems: proceedings of the 2002 conference (pp. 281-290). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society of Information Science and Technology and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. http://www.chemheritage.org/events/asist2002/proceedings.html

Black, A. (2004b). Every discipline needs a history: information management and the early information society in Britain. In: W.B. Rayward (Ed.) Aware and responsible…. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Black, A. & Brunt, R. (2005). Information management in MI5 before the age of the computer. In: Williams, R.V. & Lipetz, B.A. (Eds.) Covert and Overt: Recollecting and Connecting Intelligence Service and Information Science (pp. 71-80). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. and Scarecrow Press for the American Society for Information Science. (ASIST Monograph Series) Note: a reprint of an article in Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Summer, 2001).

Black, A. (2006). Information History. In: Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 40, pp. 1- 20, Blaise Cronin, (Ed.) Silver Spring, MD: American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Black, A. (2011). A valuable handbook of information‘: the staff magazine in the first half of the twentieth century as a means of information management. In: Weller, T., (Ed.) Information history in the modern world: histories of the information age (pp. 130-154)). London: Palgrave/McMillan.

Black, A., Muddiman, D. & Plant, H. (Eds.) (2007). The early information society: information management in Britain before the computer. London: Ashgate, 302p.

Blair, A. (2010). Too much to know: managing scholarly information before the modern age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Blasingame, R. (1961). Punched cards. In R. R. Shaw (Ed.), The state of the library art (Volume 4, Part 3, pp. 103-138). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers—The State University, Graduate School of Library Service.

Bleier, C. (2001). Tradition in Transition: A History of the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, 100th Anniversary, 1901-2001. Metuchen, NJ.

Block, A. & Downey, G. (Eds.) (2004). Uncovering Labour in Information Revolutions, 1750-2000. London: Cambridge University Press. (International Review of Social History Supplements, Vol. 11).

Blum, B. I., & Duncan, K. (Eds.) (1990). A history of medical informatics. New York: ACM Press.

Bohnert, L. M. (1977). Nonconventional technical information systems. In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 20, pp. 71-90). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Bolter, J. D. (1991). Writing space: The computer, hypertext, and the history of writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Borgman, C. L. (1981). User training for on-line systems. In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 32, pp. 259-306). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Borgman, C.L. (2000). From Gutenberg to the global information infrastructure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Borgmann, A. (2001). Holding on to Reality: The Nature of Information at the turn of the Millenium. Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press.

Borko, H., & Taylor, R. S. (1968). American Society for Information Science. In A. Kent & H. Lancour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 1, pp. 303-307). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Boure, R. (2002). Les origins des sciences de l’information et de la communication: regards croises. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

Bourne, C.P. & Hahn, T.B. (2003). A History of online information services, 1963-1976. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Bowden, M. E., Hahn, T. B., & Williams, R. V. (Eds.) (1999). Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Bowker, G. C. (1994). Science on the run: Information management and industrial geophysics at Schlumberger, 1920-1940. (Inside Technology.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bowker, G. C. (1999). The game of the name: Nomenclatural instability in the history of botanical informatics. In M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, & R. V. Williams (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (pp. 74-83). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Bowker, G.C & Star, S.L. (1999). Sorting things out: classification and its consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bowker, G.C. (2006). Memory Practices in the Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bowles, M. D. (1999). The information wars: Two cultures and the conflict in information retrieval, 1945 1999. In M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, & R. V. Williams (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (pp. 156-166). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Bowles, M.D. (2000). Liquifying information: Controlling the flood in the Cold War and beyond. In: Cultures of Control, M.R. Levin, 225-246. (Ed.). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic.

Bowman, C. M. (1974). The development of chemical information systems. In J. E. Ash & E. Hyde (Eds.), Chemical information systems (pp. 6-12). Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Boyla n, R. (1983). Center for Research Libraries. In A. Kent (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 36, Suppl. 1, pp. 156-167). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Brandhorst, T. (1993). The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 51, Suppl. 14, pp. 208-225). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Brenner, C. W. (1958). A case history of a Zatocoding information retrieval system. In R. S. Casey, J. W. Perry, M. M. Berry, & A. Kent (Eds.), Punched cards: Their application to science and industry (2nd ed). New York: Reinhold Publishing.

Brenner, E. (1999). The day I faced technology [Pioneers’ reminiscences]. In M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, & R. V. Williams (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (p. 254). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Brenner, E.H. & Saracevic, T. (1985). Indexing and searching in perspective. Philadelphia: National Federation of Abstracting and Indexing Services

Breton, P. (1990a). La tribu informatique: Enquête sur une passion moderne. (Collection Traversées.) Paris: Métailié.

Breton, P. (1990b). Une histoire de l’informatique. Paris: Éditions La Découverte.

Briet, S.R. (2006). What is Documentation. Translated and edited by R.E. Day and L. Martinet. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. (Includes a brief biography of Briet by M. Buckland.)

Briggs, A. & Burke,P. ( 2005). A social history of the media : from Gutenberg to the Internet, 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA, USA : Polity.

Brock, G.W. (2003). The second information revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 322pp.

Brock, W. H. (1998). Lamp of learning: Two centuries of publishing at Taylor and Francis. 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis.

Brodman, E. (1954). The development of medical bibliography. Chicago: Medical Library Association.

Brodman, E. (1990). Scott Adams. In W. A. Wiegand (Ed.), Supplement to the dictionary of American library biography (pp. 1-3). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

Brown, P. (2002-2003). How a digital idea became a multi-billion dollar business [parts I-IV]. Logos 13(3), 128-133; 13(4), 2120219; 14(1), 31-36; 14(2), 79-84.

Brown, R. C. W. (1985). Online Computer Library Center. In A. Kent (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 38, Suppl. 3, pp. 294-312). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Brown, R. D. (1989). Knowledge is power: The diffusion of information in early America, 1700-1865. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Brown-Syed, C. (2011). Parents of Invention: The Development of Library Automation Systems in the Late 20th Century. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 145 pp.

Browne, C. A., & Weeks, M. A. (1952). A history of the American Chemical Society, seventy-five eventful years.  Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.

Brownson, H. L. (1999). Organizing scientific information after Sputnik [Pioneers’ reminiscences]. In M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, & R. V. Williams (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (p. 255). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Bruemmer, B. H. (1987). Resources for the history of computing: A guide to U. S. and Canadian records. Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute.

Brunt, R. (2004). Indexes and the government Code and Cypher School, Bletchley Park, 1940-1945. In W. B. Rayward, & M. E. Bowden (Eds.). Conference on the history and heritage of scientific and technological information systems: proceedings of the 2002 conference (pp.291-299). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society of Information Science and Technology and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. http://www.chemheritage.org/events/asist2002/proceedings.html

Brunt, R. (2005). Some aspects of indexing in British intelligence, 1939-1945. In: Williams, R.V. & Lipetz, B.A. (Eds.) Covert and Overt: Recollecting and Connecting Intelligence Service and Information Science (pp. 81-106). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. and Scarecrow Press for the American Society for Information Science. (ASIST Monograph Series)

Buckland, M.K. (1996). The ―liberal arts of Library and Information Science and the Research University Environment. In P. Ingwersen & N. O. Pors (Eds.). Second International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science: Integration in Perspective, 1996 Proceedings. Copenhagen: Royal School of Librarianship, 1996, pp. 75-84. (Full-text version available at: http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~buckland/libarts.html )

Buckland, M.K. (1999). Overview of the History of Science Information Systems. In M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, & R. V. Williams (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (pp. 3-7). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Available: http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_main.htm

Buckland, M. K. & Liu, Z. (1998). History of information science. In T. B. Hahn & M. Buckland (Eds.), Historical studies in information science (pp. 272-295). Medford, NJ: Information Today. (This is an updated version of Buckland & Liu, 1995.)

Buckland, M.K. (2004). Histories, heritages, and the past: the case of Emmanuel Goldberg. In W. B. Rayward, & M. E. Bowden (Eds.). (2004). Conference on the history and heritage of scientific and technological information systems: proceedings of the 2002 conference (pp. 39-45). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. for the American Society of Information Science and Technology and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. http://www.chemheritage.org/events/asist2002/proceedings.html

Buckland, M.K. (2005). Information Schools: A Monk, Library Science and the Information Age. In Petra Hauke, (Ed.). Bibliothekswissenschaft – quo vadis? =Library Science – Quo vadis?(pp. 19-32). Munich: K. G. Saur. (Slightly different version at: http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~buckland/huminfo.pdf )

Buckland, M.K. (2006). Emanuel Goldberg and his Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited (New Directions in Information Management).

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Williams, R. V., & Zachert, M. J. K. (1983a). Crisis and growth: SLA, 1918-1919. Special Libraries, 74(3), 254-264.

Williams, R. V., & Zachert, M. J. K. (1983b). Knowledge put to work: SLA at 75. Special Libraries, 74(4), 370-382.

Williams, R.V. & Zachert, M.J.K. (1986). Specialization in library education: a review of the trends and issues. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 26(4), 215-232.

Williams, R. V. (1997a). The documentation and special libraries movements in the United States, 1910-1960. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(9), 775-781.

Williams, R. V., Whitmire, L., & Bradley, C. (1997b). Bibliography of the history of information science in North America, 1900 – 1995. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(4), 373-379.

Williams, R.V. (2002). The use of punched cards in US libraries and documentation centers, 1936-1965. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24(2), 16-33.

Williams, R.V.(2006). Harold Abbott Wooster: A Memorial Essay. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 27(11), 1974-1976.

Williams, R.V. (2009). Enhancing the cultural record: recent trends and issues in the history of information science and technology. Libraries and the Cultural Record 44(3), 326-342.

Williams, R.V. (2010A). Hans Peter Luhn and Herbert M. Ohlman: their roles in the origins of keyword in-context/permutation automatic indexing. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61(4), 835-849.

Williams, R.V. (2010B). Madeline M. Henderson: From chemical information science pioneer to architect of the new information science. Libraries and the Cultural Record 45(2), 167-184.

Williams, R.V. (2012). The changed and changing ADI/ASIS/ASIST after 75 years. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 38(5), 32-38.

Williamson, N. (2004). Douglas John Foskett, 1918-2004. Knowledge Organization 31(1), 1-2.

Wilmore, L. (2002). Government policies towards information and communications technologies: a historical perspective. Journal of Information Science 28(2), 89-96.

Wilson, T. (2008). The information user: past, present, and future. Journal of Information Science 34(4), 457-464. (Republished in A. Gilchrist (Ed.), Information Science in Transition. London: Facet Publishing, 2009, 95-108.)

Wilson, T.D. (2010). Fifty years of information behavior research. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 36(3), 27-34.

Wimmer, F. (1985). Die Internationale Dezimalklassifikation: Betrachtungen zu ihrer Enstehungsgeschichte und Aktualitat [The universal decimal classification: Observations on the history of its origins and relevance to the present]. DK-Mitteilungen, 29(5), 15-18.

Windsor, D.A. (1999). Industrial Roots of Information Science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(12), 1064-1065.

Wiswesser, W. J. (1982). How the WLN [Wiswesser Line Notation] began in 1949 and how it might be in 1999. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 22, 88-93.

Witt, O. N. (1909). Obituary notices: Friedrich Konrad Beilstein. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1646-1649.

Wolff, E.N. (2005). The growth of information workers in the U.S. economy. Communications of the ACM 48(10), 37-42.

Wolff, E.N. (2006). The Growth of Information Workers in the US Economy, 1950-2000: The Role of Technological Change, Computerization, and Structural Change. Economics Systems Research 18(3), 221-255.

Wooster, H. (1987). Historical note: Shining palaces, shifting sands: National information systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 38(5), 321-335.

Wright, A. (2010). Forgotten forefather: Paul Otlet. Full text available at: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/forgotten_forefather_paul_otlet

Wright, H. C. (1985). Shera as a bridge between librarianship and information science. Journal of Library History, 20(2), 137-156.

Yates, J. (1993). Co-evolution of information processing technology and use: Interaction between life insurance and tabulating industries. Business History Review, 67(1), 1-51.

Young, A.P. (2008). Aftermath of a prediction: F.W. Lancaster and the paperless society. In: Haricombe, L. J. & Russell, K. (Eds.), 843-858, The Evaluation and Transformation of Information Systems: Essays Honoring the Legacy of F.W. Lancaster. Library Trends 56 (Spring).

Zandonade, T. (2004). Social epistemology from Jesse Shera to Steve Fuller. Library Trends 52(4), Spring, 810-832.

Zaye, D. F., Metanomski, W. V., & Beach, A. J. (1985). A history of general subject indexing at Chemical Abstracts Service. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 25(4), 392-399.

Zins, C. (2007). Conceptions of Information Science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58(3), 335-350.

Zoltai, S. (1998). Information transmission and the translation of Medieval Islamic science. Libri, 48(1), 35-48.

 

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS (INCLUDING AUDIO AND VIDEO), ORAL HISTORIES, THESES, DISSERTATIONS, AND WEB GUIDES

Aitchison, J. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted July 4, 2000, by W.B. Rayward. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 35pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/exhibits/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Aitchison, T.M. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, July 4, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 35pp. (Abstract and contents available at:
http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to cite, quote, or reproduce.)

Alle Kennis Van de Werld: Het papieren internet. (1998). (A documentary film created and directed by IJsbrand van Veelen for the science series, Noordelicht, shown on Dutch TV Sunday, November 1, 1998 (The film is based on an account of the ideas of Paul Otlet and the fortunes of the Mundaneum, a great new centre for international life, that he and his colleagues created in Brussels at the end of the First World War and which recently has been re-created as a museum and archive in Mons. W.B. Rayward served as consultant and the film was largely based on interviews with he and the director of the Mundaeum, Jean François Fuëg on location in Brussels and Mons October 10-17, 1998)

American Chemical Society. Division of Chemical Information. (1984). Chemists and Questions. (Video produced by the Division promoting chemical searching.) Available at: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre, then titles, A-Z.).

Aspnes, G. (1969). Unpublished oral history transcript of an interview, conducted by Martha Jane K. Zachert, August, 1969. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 168pp.

Baker, D.B. (1997). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted June 9, 1997 by Robert V. Williams and Leo B. Slater. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 100pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Barnes, S. B. (1995). The development of graphical user interface from 1970 to 1993, and some of the social consequences in offices, schools, and the graphic arts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.

Bourne, Charles P. (1999). 40 Years of Database Distribution and Use: An Overview and Observation. NFAIS Annual Conference, February 23, 1999, Philadelphia, PA. Available: http://www.nfais.org/MilesConrad.asp?WhichYear=1999

Bowles, M. D. (1999). Crisis in the information age? How the information explosion threatened science, democracy, the library, and the human body, 1945-1999. Doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.

Buckland, M. (2009). History of information management [a Web guide]. Updated regularly at: http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~buckland/history.html

Cady, S. A. (1994). Machine tool of management: A history of microfilm technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lehigh University.

Chang, D.H. (2000). Knowledge, culture, and identity: American influence on the development of Library and Information Science in South Korea. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Texas at Austin.

Collins, S. G. (1998). Knowledge will forever govern ignorance: Power and ideas of information society at the Library of Congress. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, American University.

Cuadra, C. A. (2001). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted May 21, 2001 by Colin B. Burke. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 31pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Davis, W. and Mooers, C.N. Families. (2000). Watson Davis and Calvin Mooers family albums: Photographs. (Compiled by Robert V. Williams from photographs supplied by the two families; a Powerpoint presentation) Available: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi-bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre, then titles A-Z)

Day, M.S. (1997). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by Robert V. Williams, July 15, 1997. Philadephia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 150pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/exhibits/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Devine, R. B. (1961?). Milestone in the evolution of an information system: Development of the U.S. AEC’s information program. Paper submitted to the Division of Technical Information, AEC.

Dierking, A.L. (1975). A history of the American Society for Information Science. Denton, TX: The Author. (North Texas Univ. School of Library Science MLS Papers.), 67pp.

DuBois, J-E. (2001). Unpublished oral history interview, Jan. 21, 2001, conducted by Colin B. Burke. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation, 31pp. (Abstracts and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ )

Dusoulier., N. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, June 19, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 27pp. (Abstract and contents available at:
http://www.chemheritage.org/ ;access is open but permission required to access.)

Farkas-Conn, I. (1984). From documentation to information science: The origins and early development of the American Documentation Institute-American Society for Information Science. Unpublished PhD. dissertation, University of Chicago.

Fayet-Scribe, Sylvie (1997). Chronologie des supports, des dispositifs spatiaux, des outils de repérage de l’information. Located at: http://gabriel.gallezot.free.fr/Solaris/d04/4fayet_0intro.html

Ferguson, E. (1968). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by Martha Jane K. Zachert, Summer, 1968. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 113pp.

Fischer, M. F. (1964). History and use of the KWIC index concept. Unpublished master‘s thesis, San Jose State College, San Jose, California.

Foskett, D.J. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, July 3, 2000. Philadelphia, PA: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 27pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; open access but permission required to consult.)

Friedman, J. E. (1997). Solid and useful knowledge: An analysis and comparison of the Philosophical Transactions and the Journal des Sçavnas, 1665-1670. Masters Thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.

Gallivan, J. D. III (1957). A history of the clearinghouse for federal scientific and technical information. Term paper for Seminar in Management Information and Operations Control, American University, Washington, DC, 124 pp.

Garfield, E. (1987). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by A. Thackray and others, Nov. 17, 1987. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry, 46pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org ; permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Garfield, E. (1997). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by R. V. Williams, July 29,1997. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 101pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org ; open access but permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Garfield, E. (2001). From Bibliographic Coupling to Co-Citation Analysis via Algorithmic Historio Bibliography: A Citationist’s Tribute to Belver C. Griffith…. Available: http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/drexelbelvergriffith92001.pdf

Guice, J. (1997). Designing the future: The United States Advanced Research Projects Agency and revolution in computing. Unpublished Ph.d. thesis, Univ. of California, San Diego.

Hapke, T. (2002). Pioneers of information science in Germany [a Web guide]. http://www.tuharburg.de/b/hapke/ispg/ispg.htm

Hapke, T. (2009). History of Scientific (Scholarly) Information and Communications: A collection of Web links. Updated regularly at: http://www.tu-harburg.de/b/hapke/infohist.htm#germany

Hayes, R.M. (2001). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by C.B. Burke, Feb. 26, 2001. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 27pp. (Abstract and contents available at www.chemheritage.org ; access is open but permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Henderson, M. M. (1993, Oct. 24-28). Some information system design projects of the 1950s with relevance for today’s system developments. Unpublished paper presented at the 56th annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Columbus, Ohio. (Available from the author.).

Henderson, M.M. (1997). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by R. V. Williams, July 14, 1997. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 82pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Herner, S. (1997). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by Robert V. Williams, , July 16, 1997. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 90pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Hauger, J. S. (1995). Reading machines for the blind: A study of federally-supported technology development and innovation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

Hertzel, D. H. (1985). Bibliographical approach to the history of idea development in bibliometrics. PhD. dissertation, Case Western Reserve University.

Hill, M. (2001). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, June 29, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 36pp. (Abstract and contents available at:
http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Hochfelder, D. P. (1999). Taming the lightning: American telegraphy as a revolutionary technology, 1832-1860. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Case Western Reserve University.

Institute for Scientific Information & Thompson Publishing. (1972). Putting Scientific Information to Work. (Video on the work of ISI in information retrieval.) Available: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi-bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre, then titles, A-Z)

Kilgour, F.G. (1985). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by R.M. Watterson, , May 11, 1985. Chicago: Medical Library Association Oral History Committee, 36pp. (Available from the Medical Library Association or the National Library of Medicine.)

Kimmel, L. H. (1996). The history of the library computer system (LCS) at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Unpublished master‘s thesis, Illinois State University.

Knight Ridder & Thompson Publishing. (1995). Dialog: The 25th Anniversary. (Video produced to celebrate the 25th year of Dialog services.) Available: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi-bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre and titles, A-Z).

Kokabi, M. (1996). The internationalization of MARC, Part I: The emergence and divergence of MARC. OCLC Systems & Services, 12(1), p. 21-31.

Kumar, S. (1978). Professor Allen Kent’s contribution in the field of librarianship and documentation. Unpublished master‘s thesis, Panjab University Chandigarh.

Lebowitz, A.I. (2000?). AGRIS 1968-1994: Insights and lessons: a personal memoir. Available: http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/gelb-agris-10.pdf

Levie, F. (2003). The man who wanted to classify the world: from the index card to the world city, the visionary life of a Belgian utopian, Paul Otlet, 1868-1940. Film produced by Francois Levie, 65 mins. video – Sofidoc Production, 46 rue Colonel Bourg, B-1030 Brussels, Belgium. Avialable for purchase from the company. A short clip from the film is available at: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/forgotten_forefather_paul_otlet

Line, M.B. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward June 27, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 38pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Marion, G. E. (1966). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by R. V. Williams, Spring, 1966. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 69pp.

Marloth, H. (1996). Zeittafel zur internationwen entwicklung des informationswesens nach 1945 [Chronology of the international development of information science since 1945]. (In German). http://www.fs-infowiss.phil.unisb.de/BuFaTa/thesen.marloth.html#Zeit.

Meadows, A.J. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, June 29, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 27pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Medinger, E. E. (1964). A brief history of the activities of Atherton Seidell (1878-1961) in the field of documentation, giving a resume of his theories and ideals of the dissemination of information of the source materials of scientific literature. Washington, DC (30 leaves). Available from NLM, History of Medicine Division.

Miksa, Shawne D. (2002). Pigeonholes and punchcards: identifying the division between library classification and information retrieval research, 1952-1970. Ph. D. thesis, Florida State Univ., 2002. Available: http://courses.unt.edu/smiksa/documents/Miksa_Dissertation_2002.pdf

Miksa. Shawne D. (2003). Citation Behaviors of Lumpers and Splitters: a analysis of classification research and information retrieval research, 1952-1970. American Society for Information Science and Technology annual conference, Long Beach, CA., October 19-22, 2003. SIG-HFIS panel : A Science of Public Knowledge.

Moen, W. E. (1998). The development of ANSI/NISO Z39.50: A case study in standards evolution. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Syracuse University.

Mooers Family (1996). Calvin N. Mooers: A memorial video. Video produced by the family of Calvin Mooers. Available for viewing at: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi-bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre; then titles A-Z.)

Moraes, A.F. (2005?). Os pioneiros da ciencia da informacao nos EUA [The pioneers of information science in the USA] Original in Portuguese. Available: http://www.ies.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.php/ies/article/viewFile/144/138 .

Moses, R. P. (1998). A tapestry of change: Printing technology and publishing in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Temple University.

National Library of Medicine. (1964). The MEDLARS Story. (Video detailing the development of MEDLARS). Available: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi-bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre, then titles A-Z)

National Library of Medicine. (1971). Dr. Martin Cummings: An Interview. (Video interview of former Director of the Library). Available: http://129.252.169.133/gsdl/cgi-bin/library (click on History of Information Science and Technology Digital Theatre and then titles, A-Z)

Ohlman, H. (1960). Mechanical indexing: Historical development, techniques and critique. Paper presented at 23rd annual meeting of the American Documentation Institute, Berkeley, CA.

Peters, B. (2010). From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 342 pp.

Phillips, D. C. (1996). Art for industry’s sake: Halftone technology, mass photography and the social transformation of American print culture. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University.

Rowe, J. (2011). The Public Life of Information. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 520 pp.

Saracevic, T. Interviews, 2000. [Four interviews by Beth Logan, revised in 2004.] Available: http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/~tefko/interviews.htmSchmid, H. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W. B. Rayward, June 14, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 27 pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite or reproduce.)

Schneiders, P. (1982). De Bibliotheek – en Documentatiebeweging 1880-1914: Bibliografische Odernemingen rond 1900 [The library and documentation movement 1880-1914: Bibliographic enterprises around 1900]. Doctoral dissertation, University of Amsterdam Letterenfaculteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Schultz, C.K. (1997). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by R. V. Williams, July 9, 1997. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 69pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Seaver, B.W. (1997). The career of Rebecca Browning Rankin, the Municipal Reference Librarian of the City of New York, 1920-1952. Unpublished Ph.d. thesis, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Sewell, W. (1984). Unpublished oral history interview, May 11, 1984. Chicago: Oral History Committee of the Medical Library Association. (Available from the Medical Library Association or the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.).

Shankar, K. (2002). Scientists, records, and the practical politics of infrastructure. Unpublished Ph.d. thesis, Univ. of California, Los Angeles.

Shelnutt, C. (2011). An Exploration of the Experiences of Pioneering Online Library and Information Science Graduate Students in the 1990s, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Woman‘s University, 274 pp.

Shreve, I. M. S. (1970). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by Martha Jane K. Zachert, July, 1970. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, Washington, DC, 168pp.

Stuart-Stubbs, B. (1992). Learning to love the computer: Canadian libraries and the new technology, 1945-1965. Unpublished manuscript.

Summit, R. (2005). Dialog from the Beginning. Video presentation to Google, Inc. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2po_K_sC110

Thompson, N. J. (1996). Edward M. Heiliger and the Florida Atlantic University Library: An experiment in automation (1955-1967). Unpublished master‘s thesis, Florida Atlantic University.

Tocatlian, J. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, June 22, 2000. Philadelphia: The Chemical Heritage Foundation, 36pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Todeschini, C. (2000). Unpublished oral history interview, conducted by W.B. Rayward, June 13, 2000. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation, 33pp. (Abstract and contents available at: http://www.chemheritage.org/ ; permission required to quote, cite, or reproduce.)

Vaden, W.M. (2001?). The Oak Ridge Technical Information Center: A Trailblazer in Federal Documentation. Available: http://www.osti.gov/ostihist.html

Weller, T. (2007) “Information in Nineteenth Century England: Exploring Contemporary Socio Cultural Perceptions and Understandings.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, City University, London.

West, M. (1982). What where we’ve been says about where we are: Research and information science. Unpublished paper, Palo Alto, Calif.: System Development Corp.

Williams, R.V. & Covey, H.C (1993). Mechanized Information Retrieval: A Demonstration of the Termatrex System. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, Distance Education and Instructional Services. (A 15 minute video; available for viewing at: http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/istindex.htm )

Wikipedia Library and Information Science Portal (no date; updated regularly). No author stated. [As of the end of 2007, versions existed in English, German, French, and Polish.] English version, with links to other versions available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Library_and_information_science

Wouters, P. (1999). The citation culture. Unpublished Ph.d. thesis, Univ. of Amsterdam. (Available: http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/wouters/wouters.pdf )

Youngman, D. C. (1998). Changing roles for science & technology librarians as reflected in the History of Engineering Index. Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship, 18(Spring). http://www.library.ucsb.edu/wtl/98-spring/then-now.html.

Zhu, X. (2011). The access rights to digital legal information: a historical case study of Lexis. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Zoe, L. R. (1999). The development of international women’s information and documentation centres: A study of selected cases. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.