• Chemisches Journal thought to be the first chemistry journal, is established by Lorenz von Crell. Published 1778-84; subsequently renamed Chemische Annalen and published 1784-1803. It already included some abstracts.


  • Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Louis Bernard Guyton de Moreau, Claude Louis Berthollet, and Antoin François de Fourcroy establish the Annales de chimie.
  • Short-lived Chemical Society of Philadelphia is founded and subsequently publishes its transactions.


  • Justus Liebig acquires Annalen der Pharmacie. Name later changes to Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie and, most recently, to European Journal of Organic Chemistry.


  • The Chemical Society of London is established.


  • Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society of London (later, Journal of the Chemical Society) is first published. In 1871 it begins including abstracts of the chemical literature.


  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is founded. It includes a section devoted to chemistry.


  • The Société Chimique de Paris is established. Begins publication of Bulletin as well as Répertoire de chimie pure and Répertoire de chimie appliquée, which include abstracts.


  • Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science (with which is incorporated the Chemical Gazette), the first weekly chemistry periodical, is published in England. It continues to be published until 1932.


  • Congress is held at Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule to discuss the feasibility of establishing a systematic and rational nomenclature for chemistry. The congress does not reach any conclusive results, but several key participants return home with Stanislao Cannizzaro’s outline (1858), which ultimately convinces them of the validity of his scheme for calculating atomic weights.


  • The Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft is established. Begins publication of its journal, Berichte.
  • The Royal Society begins publication of its Catalogue of Papers in London.


  • The Rossiskoe Khimicheskoe Obschestvo (now Russko Khimichesko Obschestvo) is established in Russia. Begins publication of a journal the following year.


  • Societa Chimia Italiana is established in Italy. Begins publication of a journal the same year.


  • American Chemical Society (ACS) is formed in New York City and first proceedings are published.


  • Kagaku-kai is established in Tokyo and, two years later, publishes its journal in Japanese; in 1921, becomes Nippon Kagaku-kai.


  • ACS commences publication of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, including abstracts of foreign journals.


  • Geneva conference establishes principles that set the stage for an evolving chemical nomenclature. These principles are developed more fully by various forerunners of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), which is founded in 1919.


  • American Institute of Chemical Engineers is founded and begins publication of its transactions.


  • Wilhelm Ostwald founds Die Brücke, an international institute for the organization of intellectual work, but fails in his attempt to establish a special international institute to document the field of chemistry.


  • A $15,000 grant from the Chemical Foundation allows Watson Davis to establish the Documentation Institute as part of Science Service and to operate the Auxiliary Publication Service for science librarians. These initiatives lead indirectly to the establishment, in 1937, of the American Documentation Institute, the predecessor of the American Society for Information Science.


  • France’s Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique is established with chemical information science among its fields of research.


  • Technical Library Techniques Symposium is held at an ACS meeting, and the Chemical Literature Group is formed as part of the Division of Chemical Education.


  • ACS board establishes a Board Committee on Punched Cards, with James W. Perry as chairman. The committee’s activities are financially supported by the ACS with additional funds solicited from industry. Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Center for Scientific Aids to Learning continues this work with a grant from the Carnegie Corporation.
  • Chemical Biological Coordination Center (CBCC) is established in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Begins punched-card system to organize complex information files.
  • The Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker is founded, replacing the Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft and the Verein Deutscher Chemiker.


  • ACS’s Division of Chemical Literature is formed and the next year begins publication of Chemical Literature. In 1975 name changes to Division of Chemical Information.
  • Royal Society Scientific Information Conference convenes in London.


  • Austin M. Patterson receives first A.M. Patterson Award for Documentation in Chemistry from ACS’s Dayton Section. In 1975 the award is expanded to honor E.J. Crane and becomes the Patterson-Crane Award.


  • The Institute of Scientific Information is established at the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Moscow and in the following year begins publication of Referativnyi Zhurnal, Khimiya, a chemical abstracting journal. In 1955 the institute becomes the All-Soviet Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI), the centralized abstracting and indexing service for all scientific fields.


  • International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI) is held in Washington, D.C.
  • National Federation of Science Abstracting and Indexing Services is founded. In 1972 it becomes National Federation of Abstracting and Indexing Services.


  • Chemical Notation Association is founded in the United States.


  • The International Council of Scientific Unions establishes the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) to improve the quality and accessibility of scientific data collected worldwide.


  • West Germany’s Internationale Dokumentationsgesellschaft für Chemie is founded with the cooperation of German chemical companies.


  • Association of Information and Dissemination Centers is established by various private and public national and international organizations to deal with production, distribution, and use of electronic products and services.
  • Information Industry Association is founded by Eugene Garfield, Saul Herner, and others.


  • The U.K. Consortium on Chemical Information, the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, and CAS form a partnership to develop and operate a common, computerized information system for chemistry and chemical engineering.
  • Great Britain’s Chemical Notation Association is founded.


  • European Association of Information Services is established to coordinate and advance the interests of operators of computerized data services.


  • Japan Association for International Chemical Information is founded to increase the international flow of chemical information.


  • NATO’s Computer Representation and Manipulation of Chemical Information is held at Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.


  • Herman Skolnik becomes the first recipient of the Skolnik Award of the ACS Division of Chemical Information.


  • The Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, and other organizations merge to form the Royal Society of Chemistry in Great Britain.


  • Fachgruppe Chemie-Information is founded within the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker.
  • Great Britain’s Chemical Structure Association is established.


  • Division of Chemical Information and Computer Science is founded within the Chemical Society of Japan.


  • First International Conference on Chemical Structures held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.


  • First International Conference on Chemical Information held in Montreux, Switzerland.