Job Descriptions
Archivists
Bibliometrics and Research Impact Librarian
Content Manager
Database Administrator
Digital Asset Manager
Digital Initiatives Librarian
Digital Repository Librarian
Discovery Services Librarian
E-Learning Librarian
Fundraiser/Prospect Researcher
GeoInformatician
Information Architect
Information Architecture, Web Developer/Webmaster
Information Broker
Learning Commons Informationist/Manager
Librarian
Market Research Analyst
Medical Informaticist
Metadata Librarian
Network and Computer System Administrators
Operations Research Analyst
Records Manager
Research Data Management Librarian
SEO Analyst
Social Media Manager
Systems Librarian
Web Developer/Webmaster
Web Services Librarian

Market Research Analyst

Market research analysts study market conditions to examine potential sales of a product or service. They help companies understand what products people want, who will buy them, and at what price. They conduct research using secondary and primary sources to confirm that the facts presented in media resources are correct before being published and/or aired. They need to be able to work under a deadline and sometimes need to confirm facts by telephoning a source directly.

Market research analysts have good familiarity with statistical methods and measurement, very good writing skills and knowledge of economic business and market trends. Also important are excellent research skills and a good knowledge of resources for research. You also need to be able to work quickly and efficiently on a deadline.

Education: Most market research analysts need at least a bachelor’s degree. Top research positions often require a master’s degree. Strong math and analytical skills are essential.

Average salary: The median annual wage for market research analysts was $60,300 in May 2012.

Outlook: Employment of market research analysts is projected to grow 32 percent from 2012 to 2022, much faster than the average for all occupations. Employment growth will be driven by an increased use of data and market research across all industries, to understand the needs and wants of customers, and to measure the effectiveness of marketing and business strategies. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Operations Research Analyst

Organizations rely on the collection, analysis and reporting of statistical data in order to quantify their successes and failures and to create a snap shot of how the organization is fulfilling its goals and objectives. The information professionals who carry out these duties are called Operations Research Analysts. Operations research analysts create surveys, collect data, use statistical software packages to interpret data and write reports on their findings for their organization.

To be a good operations research analyst you need to have good mathematical skills, especially skills in statistics. You should have an excellent grasp of the concepts involved in collecting and analyzing statistical data. You should have taken a number of educational courses in statistics. A good operations research analyst should be able to use statistical software packages to interpret and analyze data. You should also have good writing skills and be able to write reports on your findings that can be read by different people in the organization who would benefit from reading the findings in your report, and can make better decisions based on your research.

Education: at least a Bachelor’s degree and usually a Master’s degree, often in Computer Science, Mathematics or Statistics.

Skills: mathematics, strong knowledge of statistical concepts, ability to use statistical software to analyze data.

Average Salary: The median annual wage for operations research analysts was $72,100 in May 2012.

Outlook: Employment of operations research analysts is projected to grow 27 percent from 2012 to 2022, much faster than the average for all occupations. As technology advances and companies seek efficiency and cost savings, demand for operations research analysis should continue to grow. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Jana Carson, Jo Nelson, Nancy Fried Foster


Network and Computer System Administrators

Organizations rely on computer networks and computing resources to connect with others both internally and externally. To manage smooth connections in an organization’s networks, we rely on skilled professionals to manage them. These professionals are called Network and Computer System Administrators.

To be a good Network and Computer System Administrators you need to have excellent technical skills especially experience or certification in network and systems administration, as well as knowledge and experience or training with operating systems and server hardware. You also need expert knowledge of computer security and assisting in defining user computing policies. Also requires excellent project management skills. A good knowledge of server hardware is also important.

Education: Usually requires a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science and/ or certification in relevant skills and technologies.

Skills: systems administration, network engineering, project management, knowledge of server software.

Average Salary: Average salary for Network Engineers is $34.88/hr (U.S.)

Outlook: Employment of network and computer systems administrators is projected to grow 12 percent from 2012 to 2022, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Growth will be highest at firms that provide cloud computing technology. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Paul Frields, Theo Engelman


Database Administrator

Organizations rely on enterprise databases to contain all of the data that a business creates on a day to day basis. To keep these systems running, they require information professionals to install, manage, troubleshoot and plan upgrades of their systems and plan for future growth. These professionals are called Database Administrators.

To be a good Database Administrator you need to have excellent technical skills especially database administration and server administration. Excellent scripting skills are also important, particularly Powershell, Python and Perl. A good knowledge of network protocols is helpful. Good project management skills are also very important, especially when upgrading systems.

Education: Usually requires a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science.

Skills: Database Administration, advanced scripting skills, knowledge of network protocols.

Average Salary: The median annual wage for database administrators was $77,080 in May 2012. (U.S.)

Outlook: Employment of database administrators is projected to grow 15 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth in this occupation will be driven by the increased data needs of companies across the economy. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Learning Commons Informationist/Manager

School libraries and librarians have evolved alongside of society and technology,  and school libraries need information professionals and educators  more than ever to help students effectively find the resources they need and want and to train students how to use the library effectively.

To be a good Learning Commons Informationist/Manager you should have excellent information literacy and pedagogical skills. You may be required to hold both a teaching degree and a degree in Library Science. You should have a broad knowledge of all the work that goes on in a library, as you will often be the only professional (or only person!) working in the library. You should have reasonably good technical skills especially with using educational technologies. You will need to have a good understanding of the types of materials used by the grade levels in your school and the types of materials which are needed to best support the curriculum.

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Master’s of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK). Some districts may require an Education degree in place of or in addition to a Master’s of Library Science..

Skills: Requires excellent teaching and pedagogical skills. Requires a broad overview of library processes (cataloguing, reference, information literacy, collection development.) Often requires teacher certification.

Average Salary (OOH): Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Teachers average $55,000/yr

Outlook (OOH): Outlook for librarians as a whole is slower than average. (Winter 2000/2001) Outlook for Teachers in the United States is the same as average. (OOH)


Web Services Librarian

Research libraries, public libraries and corporate information centers today employ information professional to manage and develop their websites. These information professionals are often called Web Services Librarians.

To be a good Web Services Librarian,  you should have excellent written and verbal communication skills. You should have good technical skills especially  web programming skills and experience with web development tools. A good visual sense is also useful.

Skills: Requires very strong technical skills such as programming languages, web technologies, databases, web development tools and content management systems such as Drupal.

Average Salary: Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Web Service Librarians make higher than average.

Outlook: Employment of librarians is projected to grow 7 percent from 2012 to 2022, slower than the average for all occupations. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Systems Librarian

As always libraries require professionals to manage the integrated library system. To manage the Integrated Library System, it is necessary to have a library professional who pairs excellent technological skills with a good grasp of other library departments and functions. These professionals are called Systems Librarians.

To be a Systems Librarian you need excellent technical skills especially in depth knowledge of database administration, especially administering an Integrated Library System (Alma, Aleph, Polaris, Millenium.) Also helpful are knowledge of XML and metadata standards such as Dublincore, METS,and MODS.  You should also have good web programming skills and knowledge of web development tools. A knowledge of cataloging, circulation and acquisitions workflows are also very useful.

Skills: In depth familiarity with Integrated Library Systems. Knowledge of web based programming languages and development tools. Knowledge of cataloguing, circulation and acquisitions workflows. Knowledge of XML and non marc- metadata standards and proxy servers is helpful. Knowledge of content management systems such as Drupal is also helpful.

Average Salary (OOH): Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Systems Librarian positions tend to be higher than average.

Outlook (OOH): Outlook for librarians as a whole is slower than average. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions (for example Webmaster) (OOQ -Winter 2000/2001)

Interview: Pascal Calarco


Discovery Services Librarian

As always libraries require professionals to manage the integrated library system. With more users becoming used to the search features found in eCommerce sites such as Amazon, users have demanded a seamless and faceted search interface similar to the search interface they have come to expect from these sites. This has led to the development of Discovery Systems. Discovery Systems work on top of Integrated Library Systems to create user friendly search systems and integrate a libraries electronic resources. To manage these systems a new library role has been created, that of Discovery Services Librarian.

To be a Discovery Services Librarian you need excellent technical skills especially in XML and metadata standards such as Dublincore, METS,and MODS. You should also have good web programming skills and knowledge of development tools, especially APIs. You should also have experience administering discovery systems (Primo, Summon, Encore) and link resolvers (Sfx, LinkSource) and proxy servers. A knowledge of cataloging and acquisitions workflows, and issues surrounding copyright and licensing are also useful.

Skills: XML, metadata standards such as DublinCore. Knowledge of web based programming languages and development tools. Familiarity with Integrated Library Systems, proxy servers, link resolvers and electronic resources management systems. Knowledge of content management systems such as Drupal is helpful. Knowledge of non-Marc metadata is also helpful.

Average Salary (OOH): Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Discovery positions tend to be higher than average.

Outlook (OOH): Outlook for librarians as a whole is slower than average. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions (for example Webmaster) (OOQ -Winter 2000/2001)


Bibliometrics and Research Impact Librarian

Universities are increasingly becoming interested in quantifying the impact that their research has. With their traditional interest in bibliometrics, librarians are a perfect fit for analyzing research impact and to train faculty members and graduate students to use tools to measure their own research impact.

Bibliometrics and Research Impact Librarian have strong foundations in numeracy, statistics, and bibliometrics, which is the science of measuring scholarly output. skills. They are familiar with issues surrounding scholarly communication and research impact, have excellent communication and instruction skills These individuals often serve as the point person in the library and a key person on campus for bibliometrics and research impact and likely will be training faculty and students to use bibliometrics tools and how to interpret metrics.

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Master’s of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK).

Skills: Requires excellent research skills. Requires excellent knowledge of copyright and scholarly communication. Requires excellent knowledge of issues surrounding bibliometrics and analyzing research impact. Requires strong data analyzing and bibliometrics skills using tools such SciVal, Google Scholar Citations, Publish or Perish, Symplectic, ORCID, Researcher ID.

Average Salary: Librarians average $26.62/Hr. This is a hot specialty in 2015, so well-qualified candidates will command a higher salary.

Outlook: Employment of librarians is projected to grow 7 percent from 2012 to 2022, slower than the average for all occupations. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Research Data Management Librarian

With the development of new technologies, academic libraries are finding themselves taking on new roles such as creators of digital content, content publishers and content curators including curators of research data.

Interest in institutional repositories is increasing as University administrators see the potential that institutional repositories hold for promoting the research output of an institution as well as the potential they hold for streamlining the tenure and promotion process. This includes datasets produced as a result of research. Additionally, funding bodies are increasingly stipulating that publically funded research as well as research datasets be made freely available, often in an open repository.

The proliferation of interest in research data has resulted in the creation of a new breed of librarian, the Research Data Management Librarian. A Research Data Management Librarian should have excellent technological skills, especially in managing and manipulating data, digital asset management systems and open journal systems software as well as a excellent command of issues surrounding open source publishing and scholarly communication. They should also have excellent communication skills as they will often find themselves in the role of promoting and educating users about the role the library plays in curating research data as well as obtaining “buy in” from institutional stakeholders.

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Master’s of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK).

Skills: Requires excellent research skills. Requires excellent knowledge of copyright and scholarly communication. Requires excellent knowledge of issues surrounding open access. Requires strong technical skills such as programming languages (XML, CSS, Javascript, SQL, MySQL) metadata standards (DublinCore, OAI, Premis etc.), Digital Asset Management Systems (Islandora, ContentDM) Statistical and GIS software (such as SPSS and Stata or ArcGIS) as well as software to manage other types of research data and Database Storage and Distribution systems (such as Hadoop)

Average Salary (OOH): Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Research Data Management Librarians make slightly higher than average.

Outlook (OOH): Outlook for librarians as a whole is slower than average. However Retirements are anticipated and technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions (OOQ -Winter 2000/2001)


Metadata Librarian

Libraries and businesses require professionals to organize and classify information resources to provide easy and accurate access to information, and professional librarians with excellent technical skills are in demand as metadata librarians.

Metadata librarians use standards to describe a wide variety of items in their work. Fluency and experience in Extensible Markup Language (XML), which is now employed on the web, is critical, as well as being able to think abstractly in defining new ways to describe collections of things, using taxonomies or standard vocabularies. This is detail-oriented work, and metadata librarians who develop complementary technical skills in programming, user experience are able to grow their careers more broadly into technology work in the libraries and businesses in which they work.

Skills: Experience with a range of metadata standards, vocabularies and web technologies . Familiarity with integrated library systems. Some positions might require experience with linked data and semantic web applications. Some positions may require experience with digital repositories.

Average Salary: Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Certain metadata librarian positions may be higher than average, especially positions requiring stronger technical skills.

Outlook: Employment of librarians is projected to grow 7 percent from 2012 to 2022, slower than the average for all occupations. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Jacob Shelby, Soraya Assar


E-Learning Librarian

These days patrons prefer to have access to library resources wherever and whenever they want and this includes information literacy resources as well.

E-learning Librarians require excellent communication skills and excellent information literacy and pedagogical skills. You should have teaching experience usually from working as a teaching and learning librarian or as a teacher librarian. You should have good technical skills especially with developing e-learning content using course or learning management systems and with using web development tools such as Camtasia. Knowledge of web development languages such as Javascript is also useful.

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Masters of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK).

Skills: Requires excellent teaching and pedagogical skills. Requires experience or training in teaching. Requires knowledge of copyright, licensing and scholarly communication issues (especially in academic libraries). Requires strong technical skills such as programming languages CSS, Javascript, SQL, MySQL) web development tools (especially Camtasia or Captivate) and course management or learning management systems.

Average Salary: Librarians average $26.62/Hr. (U.S.)

Outlook: Employment of librarians is projected to grow 7 percent from 2012 to 2022, slower than the average for all occupations. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Michael Rodriquez


Digital Initiatives Librarian

While most libraries still house books, libraries increasingly subscribe to electronic content which is available to their users 24/7 and provide digital services available to their users wherever they finds themselves. In addition, with the development of new technologies, libraries are also finding themselves taking on new roles such as creators of digital content, content publishers and curators of digital content as well as distributors of digital content and services.

The role of digital librarian has evolved into a role that overseas all of the many digital services that a library can provide and in larger libraries often now serves as the head of a large departments which overseas everything from acquiring and providing access to digital content, managing the creation of the libraries website, managing digital services such as virtual reference and creation of digital information literacy courses, digitizing library and archival collections and much more.

Digital Initiatives Librarians have excellent communication skills as they will often need to communicate closely with a diverse number of stakeholders. They should have excellent technological skills including a knowledge of Web development and programming, a knowledge of Digital Asset Management Systems and Digital Repository administration, and a good knowledge of metadata standards. They should have a good overall knowledge of the types of digital services provided in libraries as well as a good knowledge of the issues surrounding the provision of digital content. For example a good knowledge of copyright and licensing issues is always helpful!

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Masters of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK).

Skills: Requires excellent research skills. Requires excellent knowledge of copyright and scholarly communication issues. Requires excellent knowledge of archival procedures. Requires strong technical skills such as programming languages (XML, CSS, Javascript, SQL, MySQL) metadata standards (DublinCore, EAD, OAI, Premis etc.), Digital Asset Management Sytems (Islandora, ContentDM) Digital Repository Software (Dspace), and/or Database Storage and Distribution systems (Hadoop), Familiarity with digital publishing technologies and digitization technologies. Good project management skills.

Average Salary: Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Digital Librarians make somewhat higher than average.

Outlook: Employment of librarians is projected to grow 7 percent from 2012 to 2022, slower than the average for all occupations. However retirements are anticipated. Technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Yves Maurer, Pascal Calarco


Digital Repository Librarian

With the development of new technologies, research libraries are also finding themselves taking on new roles such as creators of digital content, content publishers and curators of digital content.

With the rising costs of journals, academicians and librarians are increasingly becoming interested in alternative methods of academic publishing, especially open source publishing. With the advent of the World Wide Web and a variety of Web-based publishing technologies, it has been increasingly possible for libraries and institutions to create open source repositories available through the Web of their own original research including theses and dissertations, preprints, postprints, datasets, open access journals and more. Interest in institutional repositories is increasing as University administrators see the potential that institutional repositories hold for promoting the research output of an institution as well as the potential they hold for streamlining the tenure and promotion process. Additionally, funding bodies are increasingly stipulating that publically funded research be made freely available, often in an open repository.

The proliferation of interest in open repositories and the potential that they holdhas resulted in the development of a new librarian role, that of digital repository librarian. Digital repository librarians should have excellent technological skills, especially in the administration of digital repository software, digital asset management systems and open journal systems software as well as a excellent command of issues surrounding open source publishing and scholarly communication.

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Masters of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK).

Skills: Requires excellent research skills. Requires excellent knowledge of copyright and scholarly communication. Requires excellent knowledge of issues surrounding open access. Requires strong technical skills such as programming languages (XML, CSS, Javascript, SQL, MySQL) metadata standards (DublinCore, OAI, Premis etc.), Digital Asset Management Sytems (Islandora, ContentDM) Digital Repository Software (Dspace), and/or Database Storage and Distribution systems (Hadoop)

Average Salary (OOH): Librarians average $26.62/Hr. Digital repository librarians make somewhat higher than average.

Outlook (OOH): Outlook for librarians as a whole is slower than average. However retirements are anticipated and technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions (for example Digital Asset or Repository Manager in the private sector) (OOQ -Winter 2000/2001)


Records Manager

With all the information that organizations create while conducting their everyday business, it is no wonder that companies and other organizations require information professionals to organize their records and to ensure that records are kept in a manner to comply with legal requirements and informational requirements. The information professionals who manage records are called Records Managers. To be a good records manager you should have excellent organizational skills, be detailed oriented in writing down policies and procedures and have a good grasp of freedom of information, privacy laws and financial disclosure laws. Records managers organize records to ensure easy access later, create retention schedules based on relevant laws if applicable or on informational needs and ensure that records are retained and disposed of on schedule. You should have good communication and networking skills because you will need to be able to liaison with coworkers throughout your organization to ensure records retention and destruction compliance.

Education: Usually a Master’s of Library Science or Archival Science. May also require certification as a records manager (CRM)

Skills: Organizational skills, Legal knowledge, Good computer skills, Digitization skills and experience with Digital Asset Management systems and EDRMs (Electronic Documents and Records Managements Systems.)

Outlook: Overall employment of archivists, curators, museum technicians, and conservators is projected to grow 11 percent from 2012 to 2022, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The need to store information in archives and public interest in science, art, and history will continue to spur demand for curators, museum technicians, and conservators. Applicants should expect very strong competition for jobs. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Fred Grevin


GeoInformatician

Indiana University’s School of Informatics and Computing defines informatics as “putting technology to work to solve complex problems. If that sounds like computer science to you, the two fields are indeed related. Informaticians deal with utilizing information technology within the contexts of other disciplines: healthcare, biology, music, and environmental science, to name just a few. As computers have spread from laboratories to our workplaces, homes, and nearly every aspect of modern life, a corresponding need to adapt and optimize both hardware and software to these various areas has similarly developed.

Informatics is a particularly lucrative field for those with strong interdisciplinary interests. Geoinformatics is a good field for anyone who has excellent computer skills as well as a strong interest in Geography. Geomaticians may work with Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing data, Global Positioning systems and more. Geomaticians gather, store, process or deliver geographic or spatially referenced information. Geomaticians work in a variety of fields including health care, marketing, urban planning, environmental science, meteorology and others.

Education: Usually a Bachelor’s degree in Geomatics, GIS, Geography, or related discipline (e.i. Urban Planning, Environmental Studies.

Skills: Excellent Computer Skills including advanced knowledge of ArcGIS software and components. Some programing such as Python, PHP, Visual Basic or Javascript may be required.


Fundraiser/Prospect Researcher

As institutions compete against an increasingly crowded field for fundraising dollars, many now need information professionals to assist in their fundraising efforts by researching new donors or prospects.

As institutions compete for fundraising dollars, many now see the need for information professionals to assist in their fundraising efforts by researching new donors or “prospects”. These information professionals are called Prospect Researchers. Prospect research require excellent research skills to find new prospects, and to evaluate and prioritize prospects. They also need excellent analytical skills to search through data and news sources to find information and clues that would suggest that a particular prospect represents a viable lead for fundraisers within an organization. Also important for Prospect Researchers are excellent writing skills which are needed in order to present findings on various prospects in clear and concise reports for other fundraising professionals within an organization.

Education: Fundraisers need excellent communication and organizational skills. Most positions require at least a bachelor’s degree. sometimes a Master’s degree in Library Science is required as well.

Skills: Excellent research skills. Good writing skills (able to create guides to prospects). Experience with searching databases including business databases. Proficiency with word processing and spreadsheets Experience with fundraising databases including Raiser’s Edge and Tessetura.

Outlook: Employment of fundraisers is projected to grow 17 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations. Strong employment growth driven by the continued need to raise money should result in good job opportunities. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Nicole Fonsh


Web Developer/Webmaster

While there are a number of self-publishing tools that allow anyone with a computer and an internet connection to create a basic website, there is still a demand for expert web development and management. As long as companies want dynamic sites that stand out from the crowd, there will be no shortage of work for web developers. These information professionals need solid programming backgrounds, allowing them to build sites and site components to cater to each client’s unique situation and needs. Webmasters may be charged with maintaining a site over time, adding current content and features, and troubleshooting any problems that arise. They might also provide Search Engine Optimization (SEO) advice and be in charge of any advertisements that the site hosts to generate revenue. Overall, web professionals help ensure their clients’ sites are user-friendly, look nice, and do what they’re supposed to do.

Education: At a minimum an Associate Degree in Web Design or Computer Science, usually at least a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science or Information Science.

Skills: Extensive knowledge and experience with web languages, standards and programming frameworks.

Salary: The median annual wage for web developers was $62,500 in May 2012.

Outlook: Employment of web developers is projected to grow 20 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations. Demand will be driven by the growing popularity of mobile devices and ecommerce. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Social Media Manager

Social Media Manager use analytical tools, marketing best practices, and out of-the-box thinking, to help businesses use popular social networks to increase their bottom line. Most institutions whether for profit- or non-profit, public or private realize the benefit of having a social media presence. After all, many of their current and prospective clients and patrons belong to at least one such network. The marketing maxim of “go where the people are” remains, so if your target audience is on Facebook it is best to meet them there. However it is as easy to make mistakes on social media as it is to use social media, hence, the frequent headlines about an employee accidentally posting something on the company account that was meant for his or her private profile.

This is where the social media manager can help. Good social media managers know how to create and disseminate interesting and engaging content that stays within the bounds of professionalism. They use graphs and statistics generated by analytical software to determine the effects their campaigns are having, and alter their strategies accordingly. They should be avid learners; since the creation of new social networks and changes made to current networks occur frequently, making it necessary for social media managers to stay on top of these trends and to make their efforts remain relevant.

Education: Public relations specialists typically need a bachelor’s degree in public relations, journalism, communications, English, or business.

Skills: Excellent communications and writing skills. Sound knowledge of a variety of social media networks.

Salary: The median annual wage for public relations specialists was $54,170 in May 2012.

Outlook: Employment of public relations specialists is projected to grow 12 percent from 2012 to 2022, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment growth will be driven by the need for organizations to maintain their public image. Candidates can expect strong competition for jobs at advertising and public relations firms and organizations with large media exposure. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


SEO Analyst

One of the newer information professions, search engine optimization (SEO) is vital to nearly any online presence from sites for large corporations to regional non-profits, and even personal brands, to ensure your search rankings are high enough to be on the virtual map. An impeccably designed site isn’t going to do much good unless your prospective visitors can find it, and the best chance of them finding it is if it appears in the first few pages of results in a Google search. How do SEO analysts help make this happen? They have a deep understanding of how search engine spiders or bots “crawl” and index the internet, using keywords to determine whether a webpage is relevant to a given search query. SEO professionals also recognize the direct correlation between inbound links and a site’s ranking, the more other sites refer visitors to yours, the more likely it is that your site will appear within those first few pages of search results. Analysts use this knowledge to form and execute strategies within and outside your website to help boost its search rankings.


Librarian

As technology and society has evolved, so have libraries and librarians. While most libraries still house books, they are shelved alongside CDs, DVDs, Blu-ray discs, Playaways, popular magazines, audiobooks, and so on. Public and academic institutions alike utilize subscription services such as Overdrive and Ebscohost to provide users access to digital music, books, movies, and journals, both on-site and remotely. Libraries also function as community centers, providing the book clubs, story-times,  concerts, lectures and more.

The modern librarians’ responsibilities are as varied as the institutions that employ them. Within public libraries, librarians may specialize in a particular department (children’s, young adult, and adult), the planning and execution of events (programming), or overseeing one or more libraries (director). School Librarians work closely with teachers to ensure the collections support the curricula, and teach classes on information literacy and using the library. Librarians employed by special libraries (law, corporate, etc.) must have excellent research skills, as they are often called upon not only to locate materials but also to synthesize summary reports on their findings. The internet age has ushered in new titles like digital librarian and metadata librarian, who, as their names suggest, deal with the organization, retrieval, and storage of electronic information.

Education: Requires an ALA accredited Masters of Library Science (U.S. and Canada) or a CILIP accredited library science program or training course (UK). Some positions may also require a subject Masters degree.

Skills: Requires excellent research skills.

May require knowledge of cataloguing standards

May requires strong technical skills such as programming languages (Javascript, SQL, MySQL) Metadata standards (DublinCore, EAD, OAI, Premis etc.), knowledge of web technologies such as API’s, experience administering Libary database, and information standards. Generally the more specialized the technical knowledge required the higher the demand. Plainly stated, librarians with strong technical skills are more likely to be hired.

Average Salary (OOH): $26.62/hr

Outlook (OOH): Slower than average. Retirements are anticipated. Also technological skills improve employment prospects as well as provide entry into faster growing professions (for example Webmaster.) (OOQ -Winter 2000/2001)


Information Broker

Before Google and Siri, people often relied on other people to help track down the answers to their questions. In fact, “human search engines” still exist and are often referred to as information brokers or independent information professionals, expert searchers who efficiently connect their clients with the information they need. While traditional information professionals have backgrounds in library science, it’s become common for brokers to have postgraduate degrees in fields like liberal arts, law, or science as such specialized expertise might appeal to specialized employers like law firms, pharmaceutical companies, and so on In addition to standard librarian skills such as conducting reference interviews and manipulating electronic databases like LexisNexis and ProQuest, being an independent information broker requires the discipline of being your own boss, being able to market yourself, and being an excellent communicator.


Information Architect

Information architects work with traditional databases as well as Web 2.0 sites, responsible for design, testing and implementation of usable web sites and interfaces based on well-established standards and best practices. Typical IA tasks include creating site maps, developing taxonomies, and conducting user analysis evaluations to determine a project’s successes and/or failures.

Education: Usually at least a Bachelor’s degree, sometimes in Computer Science, Information Science or related field, sometimes in a design field such as graphic design, depending on the focus of a given position. Some positions will also accept a comparable combination of experience, education and skills.

Skills: Experience building site maps and taxonomies. Web programming languages and technologies expertise is foundational, along with design talent and knowledge of human-computer interaction standards. May require skills in graphic design software.

Interviews: Abby Covert, Peter Morville, Jorge Arango


Medical Informaticist

Indiana University’s School of Informatics and Computing defines informatics as “putting technology to work to solve complex problems. If that sounds like computer science to you, the two fields are indeed related. Informaticians deal with utilizing information technology within the contexts of other disciplines: healthcare, biology, music, and environmental science, to name just a few. As computers have spread from laboratories to our workplaces, homes, and nearly every aspect of modern life, a corresponding need to adapt and optimize both hardware and software to these various areas has also developed.

Informatics is a particularly lucrative field for those with strong interdisciplinary interests. One of the most common types of informaticians are Medical Informaticians. This is a good field for anyone who is interested in both health care and computing. Physicians who have good computing skills might be interested in medical informatics. A related field, nursing informatics, brings informatics into the nursing field. Also health care informatics might appeal to those who are interested in auxiliary health care fields, such as public health, pharmacy or consumer health to name just a few.

Education: To be a medical or nursing informaticist you generally would need to be trained as either a physician (for medical informatics) or a registered nurse (for nursing informatics) and take training to become board certified as an informaticist. This is especially true for informaticians in a clinical setting. Other health informatics positions may require a degree in the field being studied and additional informatics training, for example in pharmacy or public health and other may require a bachelor’s or graduate degree in Health Informatics.

Skills: As above. Medical or Nursing training with appropriate board certification for clinical informaticists or other appropriate health care degree or Degree in Health Informatics with certification by AMIA.

Outlook: Employment of physicians and surgeons is projected to grow 18 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations. Job growth will occur because of the continued expansion of healthcare-related industries.Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Interviews: Omolola Ogunyemi


Content Manager

A content manager is to a website what a production manager or editor is to a print periodical. Just as in the magazine and newspaper world, these managers must possess finely tuned writing and proofing skills to ensure content added to the site is both well-crafted and representative of the site’s “voice.” Whether or not a strict publishing calendar is heeded, content managers see to it that new items are added on a regular and timely basis. While these individuals aren’t necessarily the people designing and maintaining the sites from a technical perspective having some web and graphic design knowledge is always useful.

Interview: Kim Dority


Archivists

Archivists are essentially professional collectors. They help preserve our heritage by preserving manuscripts and other materials from the past as well as items from the present that may eventually prove to be of historical interest. Despite the possibilities introduced by digital preservation technologies, most libraries and archives recognize that of attempting to collect the sum total of human knowledge as a futile effort. Thus, in addition to expertise in archival preservation and organization techniques, archivists must also be quite knowledgeable about the cultures and histories with which they work in order to make the often difficult decisions about what is worth holding on to. More and more modern archivists need to be comfortable with physical documents and equipment and with digital technologies such as Digital Asset Management Systems and Archival Description Software and other technologies.

Education: Master’s of Library Science with an emphasis on Archives and/or a Master’s of Archival Science. May also require a second Master’s degree in a relevant discipline.

Skills: Requires excellent research skills. Archival description, Archival preservation, may require knowledge of metadata (EAD, Dublincore etc.) may require knowledge of Digital Asset Management systems, ContentDM. Islandora, archival description software (ICAAtoM) and digital preservation techniques.

Average Salary (OOH): $21.35/hr.

Outlook (OOH): Average growth


Digital Asset Manager

Growing out of the combination of archival science and information technology, the digital asset manager (DAM) or digital archivist deals primarily with the preservation and storage of born-digital materials, and digitized copies of analog materials. While physical repositories are still alive and well, archives of born-digital and digitized materials are becoming common, ranging from small private collections to large scale initiatives like Project Gutenberg and Google Books.

The most exciting aspect of working in digital asset management is the newness of the field. While paper-based records have been around for decades, the history of their electronic equivalents spans mere decades. These technologies are constantly evolving, which means DAMs need to stay up date with technologies and materials need to be migrated to the newest file and storage formats to ensure future access. While a physical book can’t “crash” or be “erased” per se, these are legitimate concerns for information in electronic form. Thus backup copies in other locations help ensure that the data remains safe. Perhaps the biggest problem is the youth of digital: History has shown us that paper can last for hundreds of years, while digital data hasn’t existed long enough to prove similar longevity. Thus digital asset management is very much an evolving field, and those involved in it must be adaptable to new technologies and meticulous with regards to data organization and migration.

Education: Usually at least a Bachelor’s degree, sometimes a Master’s degree in Computer Science, Information Science, Library Science, or Archival Science. Corporations are more likely to ask for a Computer Science or Information Science backgrounds. Educational and heritage institutions might also specify Library or Archival Science backgrounds.

Skills: Knowledge of digital asset management and/or media asset management systems. Some examples might include Islandora, ContentDM (libraries) and Cortex or NetXposure. Knowledge of Metadata Standards. Some knowledge of programming and database technologies. Knowledge and familiarity of different file formats and their uses and characteristics. Knowledge and experience with digital capture technologies (hardware and software) for a variety of formats (depending on industry or institution)

Outlook: Digital Asset Managers do not fit cleanly into a standard occupational category, with some skills from Archives, Database Administrators, and Web Developers. Employment of this area is likely projected to grow 20 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations, due to the growing demand of managing digital content.

Interviews: Yves Maurer


Information Architecture, Web Developer/Webmaster

While there are a number of self-publishing tools that allow anyone with a computer and an internet connection to create a basic website, there is still a demand for expert web development and management. As long as companies want dynamic sites that stand out from the crowd, there will be no shortage of work for web developers. These information professionals need solid programming backgrounds, allowing them to build sites and site components to cater to each client’s unique situation and needs. Webmasters may be charged with maintaining a site over time, adding current content and features, and troubleshooting any problems that arise. They might also provide Search Engine Optimization (SEO) advice and be in charge of any advertisements that the site hosts to generate revenue. Overall, web professionals help ensure their clients’ sites are user-friendly, look nice, and do what they’re supposed to do.

Education: At a minimum an Associate Degree in Web Design or Computer Science, usually at least a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science or Information Science.

Skills: Extensive knowledge and experience with web languages, standards and programming frameworks.

Salary: The median annual wage for web developers was $62,500 in May 2012.

Outlook: Employment of web developers is projected to grow 20 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations. Demand will be driven by the growing popularity of mobile devices and ecommerce. Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.